An Analytical Study of Ramses IX Threshold at “Baybars II” Khanqah

Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Minia University, Egypt


This research profoundly analyzes the reused stone from the reign of Ramses IX, the eighth pharaoh of the twentieth dynasty of the New Kingdom. Although two previous studies briefly covered the stone, this study provides a deep analytical explanation of its specifications and historical background. The significance of this stone lies in its presence as a threshold in an Islamic facility of high importance, namely the mosque of Baybars II (Jashankeer) AD 1306. The mosque is located in the archaeological area of ​​Gamaliah (medieval Cairo), an important tourist area in Fatimid Cairo. Despite the fact that the area is high traffic for tourists and is a vital location for tourism, very little is known about the stone.That said, the researcher believes that this stone, in particular, needs to be studied in depth. Also, this research contributes to the current literature by thoroughly analyzing and examining various stone elements in terms of royal cartouches, scenes of the king's posture with different hairstyles, the deity depicted with him, and the form of the king's depiction on the stone. The researcher believes no prior research has studied those elements in the stone by scrutinizing literature works. Moreover, and most importantly, the inscriptions and reliefs on the threshold are expounded in detail. Also, this paper includes some hieroglyphic signs on the stone that were omitted in previous studies. In addition, the author highlights, elucidates, and modifies some of the engraved shapes that were not accurately recorded in previous studies. Lastly, the threshold of Ramses IX is examined from various perspectives, including the place of discovery and registration and its materials, shape, and dimensions. Each of those assessments is followed by the analysis of each dimension. Provided such an extensive study, unique attributes are found in the elements of Ramses IX threshold, and various findings are surmised.