Predictors and Outcomes of Women Empowerment in Egyptian Travel Agencies: Perceived Fairness as a Mediator


1 Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, University of Sadat City, Egypt

2 Cairo Higher Institute Mokattam, Egypt


Women in tourism are still concentrated in the lower-status and lower-paid jobs. Yet the integration of women in the labor market is still in process, as gender inequality at the workplace is still found. Therefore, the current paper aims to investigate the predictors and outcomes of women empowerment in Egyptian travel agencies. Furthermore, it examines the mediating effect of perceived fairness in the relationship between women empowerment and employee outcomes. PLS-SEM was employed to analyze the perceptions of 746 females working in some Egyptian travel agencies at different position levels, either as employees, managers, or owners. The findings revealed that organizational culture and organizational support are considered predictors of women empowerment, while performance and organizational citizenship behaviors are identified as outcomes of women empowerment. Moreover, the results showed that perceived fairness plays a partial mediating role in the link between women empowerment, performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. The results hold significant implications for enhancing women's empowerment. Limitations and future research are also discussed.